Since the B-spline basis is non-orthogonal, eigenproblems become generalized when projecting the operators onto the space $\space{P}_{t,k}$, as mentioned in Solving equations. ArnoldiMethod.jl is primarily designed to solve standard eigenproblems of the form $\mat{A}\vec{x} = \lambda \vec{x}$, and furthermore, as all Krylov methods, it is best at finding the eigenvalues which have the largest magnitude. To solve generalized eigenproblems on the form $\mat{A}\vec{x} = \lambda \mat{B}\vec{x}$, and additionally looking for an interior eigenvalue, we can employ the shift-and-invert trick mentioned in the ArnoldiMethod.jl manual, reiterated here:

Instead of iterating $\mat{A}\vec{V}_i$ on various test vectors $\vec{V}_i$, we iterate the shifted and inverted matrix $[\mat{B}^{-1}(\mat{A}-\sigma\mat{B})]^{-1}\vec{V}_i=(\mat{A}-\sigma\mat{B})^{-1}\mat{B}\vec{V}_i$, where $\sigma$ is a shift in whose vicinity we hope to find the true eigenvalue.

This can be accomplished with the aid of ShiftAndInvert.

Non-relativistic hydrogen (Schrödinger equation)

The eigenstates of non-relativistic hydrogen obey the following time-independent Schrödinger equation (in atomic units):

\[\begin{equation} \Hamiltonian\ket{\Psi} = E\ket{\Psi}, \end{equation}\]

where the Hamiltonian is given by

\[\begin{equation} \Hamiltonian = \operator{T} + \operator{V} = -\frac{\nabla^2}{2} - \frac{1}{r}. \end{equation}\]

By going over to spherical coordinates

\[\begin{equation} \Psi(\vec{r})= \sum_{n\ell m} R_{n\ell}(r)Y^\ell_m(\Omega), \end{equation}\]

and employing reduced wavefuntions

\[\begin{equation} P_{n\ell}(r)\defd rR_{n\ell}(r), \end{equation}\]

we can rewrite the radial equation as

\[\begin{equation} \Hamiltonian P_{n\ell}(r) = \left[-\frac{\partial_r^2}{2} + \frac{\ell(\ell+1)}{2r^2} - \frac{1}{r}\right] P_{n\ell}(r) = E_{n\ell}P_{n\ell}(r). \end{equation}\]

This equation can be solved with B-splines (and exactly).

We will yet again (as in Diagonal operators) illustrate the effect of different knot sets on the solution. Again, we use the following two basis sets:

julia> k = 7

julia> N = 31

julia> a,b = 0,70
(0, 70)

julia> coulomb(r) = -1/r
coulomb (generic function with 1 method)

julia> tlin = LinearKnotSet(k, a, b, N);

julia> texp = ExpKnotSet(k, -1.0, log10(b), N);

julia> Blin = BSpline(tlin,3)[:,2:end-1]
BSpline{Float64} basis with LinearKnotSet(Float64) of order k = 7 on 0.0..70.0 (31 intervals), restricted to basis functions 2..36 ⊂ 1..37

julia> Bexp = BSpline(texp,3)[:,2:end-1]
BSpline{Float64} basis with ExpKnotSet(Float64) of  on order k = 7 on 0,0.1..70.00000000000001 (31 intervals), restricted to basis functions 2..36 ⊂ 1..37

Then, for B=Blin and B=Bexp, we do (considering only $\ell=0$):

nev = 5
σ = -0.5 # Target eigenvalue

D = Derivative(axes(B, 1))
∇² = B'D'D*B
T = -∇²/2

V = Matrix(coulomb, B)

H = T + V

schurQR,history = partialschur(ShiftAndInvert(H, R, σ), nev=nev)

θ = schurQR.eigenvalues
E = real(σ .+ inv.(θ))

The exact eigenenergies for hydrogen are given by (independent of $\ell$ due to the accidental Coulomb degeneracy):

\[\begin{equation} E_{n\ell} = -\frac{1}{2n^2}. \end{equation}\]

Especially the ground state wavefunction is vastly improved by the exponential knot set:

$n$$E_n$ exact$E_n$ linear$\delta E_n$ linear$E_n$ exponential$\delta E_n$ exponential

Hydrogen eigenstates